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Which Animal Was First Cloned & When And Where?

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Which Animal Was First Cloned & When And Where?

 

Which Animal Was First Cloned & Where? is an educational quiz designed to help you learn the facts about cloning. Here are four interesting answers: Dolly the Sheep, Tadpole, Dogs, and Primates.

If you haven’t learned much about cloning yet, read on! Also, try to guess the animal’s origins: Tadpoles, male mice, and fetal cells.


Dolly The Sheep

How Dolly the Sheep was cloned is an interesting story that will surely delight science fans everywhere.

In this article, we will explore how and where the sheep was cloned and what the process involved. Dolly’s parents were black-faced sheep.

The scientists had to ‘reprogram’ her udder cells so that they would no longer grow. Then, they had to implant the cell containing the black-faced sheep’s items into a surrogate mother.

When Dolly was cloned, she was not 100% genetically identical to her black-faced mother but it was close enough. Dolly was born in an effort to genetically modify sheep to produce milk with proteins.

However, the researchers weren’t interested in cloning adult cells but embryonic stem cells. Instead, they used adult cells as controls because they failed to generate an embryo.

This was an experimental method that worked with sheep but did not work for primates. The experiment ended up killing Dolly because she had lung problems, was hyperventilating, and passed out regularly.

After decades of research, scientists were finally able to clone a sheep from an adult cell. Before this, scientists had only cloned mice, frogs, and cows from embryonic DNA.

However, Dolly’s cloning process involved adult cells, which are far more difficult to produce than embryonic cells. It took scientists at the Roslin Institute in Scotland 277 attempts before they succeeded in creating a cloned sheep.

While funding sources for these projects vary, the main funding came from the Colorado State University Agricultural Experiment Station. This research has been performed by Seidel since 1971.

Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult body cell. Her parents were a single cell taken from a ewe’s ovaries. The cloned sheep was genetically identical to the original.


Tadpole

The process of cloning a tadpole was developed to produce a human embryo.

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A terminally differentiated erythrocyte nucleus was first incubated in the cytoplasm of a fertilized oocyte and later transplanted into an enucleated egg.

The transplanted embryo developed hind limb buds, a functioning digestive system, and the ability to feed itself. The development of the tadpole was subsequently described in 1986 by Di Berardino et al.

The tadpole was the first cloned organism. The technique was developed by British developmental biologist John B. Gurdon. This process was called nuclear transfer. A tadpole’s nucleus is transplanted into an egg containing a fertilized egg.

After the tadpole has undergone fertilization and cellular development, the egg becomes a fertilized egg containing the genetic material of the donor tadpole.

In the 1970s, scientists began cloning frogs and tadpoles. Initially, they hoped to clone these animals to research drugs and treat diseases. While many researchers claim that this technology could transform medicine, others warn against it.

Cloned animals could become president! In other words, we’d have clones of everyone. The process was completed in 1962 by a British biologist, John Bertrand Gurdon.

He performed experiments to prove that the technique was successful by implanting the tadpole’s nucleus into the egg of a surrogate frog.

These experiments provided the foundation for animal cloning. The next step toward animal cloning was the successful cloning of sheep in 1996.

After obtaining tadpole embryos, scientists began the process of cloning them. The tadpole was killed by tricaine methane sulphonate, and the donor cells were obtained from the central large-diameter part of the intestine.

The donor cells, which were about one millimeter long, were separated and dissociated in modified Barth saline containing 0.1 M EDTA.

The cells released in this procedure are the intestinal epithelium, which is a strong expression of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein.


Dogs

In 2005, scientists in South Korea created the first dog clone.

They cloned a male Afghan hound named Snuppy for Seoul National University. He was born via cesarean section on April 24 with a yellow Labrador surrogate mother.

Snuppy is now over 100 days old. However, the cloning process is not yet fully regulated.

In 2005, the state of California considered banning this practice due to health concerns and the increasing number of owners looking for clones instead of adopting animals.

In 2006, Bernann Ross contacted a US-based biotechnology company to see if it could clone dogs. Unfortunately, the company closed down in late 2006, so she was forced to look for a new company.

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Last February, she finally contacted RNL Bio. She prayed and waited for a miracle. The procedure began in March 2007. Although cloned animals look very similar to their biological parents, they’re different.

The cloned animals are prone to suffering from health problems because their upbringing is inefficient. The clones have different temperaments, and even if they have the same DNA as the original dog, they’re unlikely to be completely identical.

Cloned dogs are also not as likely to be adopted, but their clones have been shown to be more affectionate and cuddlier than their biological siblings.

Since dogs were so difficult to breed, it was difficult for scientists to successfully replicate the original dog. To clone a dog, a tissue sample of the original dog is needed, as well as egg cells from a dog in heat.

Additionally, the cloners would need a surrogate mother dog to carry the puppies to birth.  This means that a new breed of dog could be born based on the characteristics of its surrogate mother.


Primates

The question of when and where primates were cloned was posed by two students at Harvard University:

Garrett Dunlap, a Biological and Biomedical Sciences Ph.D. student, and Christopher Bakerlee, a graduate student in Molecules, Cells, and Organisms.

Both researchers commented on the study’s significance and implications. The study reports that the first primates to be cloned were baby macaques.

The scientists used a technique known as somatic cell nuclear transfer to create a copy of the donor’s genome. In 1996, scientists successfully cloned the first mammal, Dolly the sheep.

Since then, many other species have been cloned, including dogs and cats. However, primates have been difficult to clone due to their unique genetic reaction.

However, a few research institutes have attempted to clone live monkeys. The results have been promising. In 2006, researchers in China used the same method to produce genetically identical macaques.

The Chinese researchers have touted the potential of the technology in studying human health problems.  Other experts believe monkey cloning is unlikely to produce human clones.

However, the Chinese scientists’ success could lead to advances in human cloning. The Chinese government plans to increase the size of the project and expand its scope.

In five years, there will be twenty or thirty cloning facilities. This research will allow researchers to create human clones of primates.

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The researchers hope to improve the SCNT technique and apply it to human clones. The clones will be studied for their physical and mental development, so scientists can develop better techniques.

This technology is a major breakthrough in human cloning, but ethical concerns remain. If this method becomes popularized, scientists may even use it to clone humans.


Sheep

The story of Dolly, the first cloned sheep, is fascinating and a key milestone in the history of animal cloning.

She was born on February 22, 1997, in Scotland, and immediately generated controversy.  However, the birth of this animal was considered a scientific breakthrough and a potential new weapon against disease.

In fact, the technology has fallen out of the limelight since then. While the technology used to clone animals was already available, a few scientists had trouble reproducing the genetic information in sheep.

Before, only embryonic cells could be used for this purpose. But now, scientists can use adult body cells. The resulting embryo is then implanted into a surrogate mother to carry the pregnancy to term.

In this way, sheep have a unique genetic makeup that makes them a good choice for cloning. The research team at Roslin Institute focused on arresting the cell cycle, which is a series of steps all cells go through when dividing.

To achieve this, the researchers used cells from the udder of a pregnant sheep. They starved the cells of nutrients for a week, and they eventually went into a slumber.

While Dolly had a longer life than normal sheep, her telomeres were shorter than normal ones. This could be why Dolly’s appearance appeared older than her actual age.

When and where sheep were cloned? How do sheep cloned animals differ from humans?

There are some similarities in the processes and procedures used to clone animals, but the process is not particularly complicated. In general, DNA from a single adult cell is implanted into an egg.

This egg behaves much like fertilized eggs would. The resulting embryo is a genetic copy of the adult animal. The egg is then implanted into a surrogate mother, where it can produce offspring.


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Animals

Potential and Challenges of Applying Gene Editing Techniques

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Potential and Challenges of Applying Gene Editing Techniques, such as CRISPR-Cas9, in Bovine Embryos Generated by IVF

Author:

CARLOS AUGUSTO DELMINDO FILHO

In vitro embryo production (IVP) has revolutionized cattle reproduction, allowing for the rapid multiplication of genetic material from high-value animals and opening up new possibilities for genetic improvement. Gene editing, with emphasis on the CRISPR-Cas9 technique, emerges as a powerful tool to enhance IVP, enabling precise manipulation of the genome and the introduction of desirable characteristics in animals. Gene editing techniques, such as CRISPR-Cas9, ZFNs, and TALENs, allow for precise modification of DNA at specific locations, representing an advance over homologous recombination techniques, which are inefficient and time-consuming.

However, the application of gene editing in bovine embryos generated by IVF still presents technical challenges, such as low efficiency and the occurrence of mosaicism, in addition to ethical and regulatory considerations that need to be addressed. This article discusses the potential and challenges of gene editing, focusing on the CRISPR-Cas9 technique, in bovine embryos produced by IVF, aiming to develop strategies to overcome barriers and ensure the safe and responsible application of this promising technology.

Potential of Gene Editing in Bovine Embryos

CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing allows for precise manipulation of the genome, opening up a range of possibilities for genetic improvement in cattle. The technique can be used for:

  • Correction of disease-causing genes: Recessive genetic diseases, such as Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD), can be corrected in embryos, eliminating the transmission of the disease to future generations.
  • Insertion of beneficial traits: The introduction of genes of interest, such as disease resistance or production traits, can accelerate the genetic improvement process, resulting in healthier and more productive animals.
  • Creation of models for research: Gene editing allows for the creation of animal models to study human diseases and develop new therapies.
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Challenges of Gene Editing in Bovine Embryos

Despite the potential, gene editing in bovine embryos still faces challenges:

  • Efficiency of editing: The success rate of gene editing in embryos is still relatively low, with the frequent occurrence of mosaicism (different genotypes in the same individual).
  • Editing specificity: The technique can generate unintentional mutations in other parts of the genome, with possible undesired effects.
  • Generation of viable animals: Gene editing can affect embryonic development and the viability of the generated animals.
  • Ethical and regulatory aspects: The application of gene editing in animals raises ethical questions about animal welfare and food safety, in addition to demanding a clear and consistent regulatory framework.

Strategies to Overcome Challenges

To overcome the challenges of gene editing in bovine embryos, several strategies are being explored:

  • Optimization of editing protocols: Optimization of gene editing protocols, such as the use of different CRISPR-Cas9 systems and choosing the ideal time for editing, can increase the efficiency and specificity of the technique.
  • Selection of edited embryos: The combination of gene editing with genomic selection of embryos (GSE) allows the identification and selection of embryos with the desired editing and high genetic merit, increasing the efficiency of the process.
  • Improvement of embryo transfer techniques: The development of more efficient embryo transfer techniques can increase the success rate in generating viable animals from edited embryos.
  • Ethical discussion and development of regulations: Ethical debate and the development of clear and consistent regulations are fundamental to ensure the responsible and safe application of gene editing in animals.
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Conclusion

CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing represents a powerful tool for the advancement of animal production and food security, as long as it is used responsibly and ethically. The combination of gene editing with other biotechnologies, such as genomic selection, can accelerate the development of solutions for livestock challenges, such as diseases, low productivity, and adaptation to climate change. However, it is crucial that the scientific community and society engage in a constant dialogue to ensure that the application of gene editing is safe, transparent, and benefits both producers and consumers.

Gene editing, especially with the CRISPR-Cas9 technique, has enormous potential to revolutionize in vitro embryo production (IVP) and genetic improvement of cattle, opening doors to a promising future in livestock. By enabling precise manipulation of the genome, this technology allows the correction of disease-causing genes, the insertion of beneficial traits, and the creation of models for research in cattle. Overcoming technical challenges, such as increasing the efficiency and specificity of editing, along with the combination with other biotechnologies, such as genomic selection of embryos, has the potential to accelerate genetic improvement and boost IVP, resulting in healthier, more productive, and better-adapted animals to market needs.

However, the application of gene editing in bovine embryos also raises important ethical and regulatory questions. It is essential that the scientific community, together with regulatory bodies and society, establish an open and transparent dialogue to discuss the possible impacts of this technology and ensure its responsible and safe application. Additionally, the development of a clear and consistent regulatory framework is essential to ensure food safety, animal welfare, and consumer confidence in products derived from gene editing.

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Author:

CARLOS AUGUSTO DELMINDO FILHO is a veterinarian with extensive experience in bovine reproduction, specializing in various reproductive biotechnologies such as OPU, AI, and embryo transfer. He has worked on dairy and beef cattle farms, focusing on optimizing results and researching new technologies. Currently, he serves as an OPU specialist, performing follicular evaluation and aspiration in donors. He holds a degree in veterinary medicine and has completed specialization courses in bovine reproduction, surgery, and technical responsibility. Additionally, he has volunteered in underserved communities and participated in academic leagues.


Referências

  • Mueller, M. L., & Van Eenennaam, A. L. (2022). Synergistic power of genomic selection, assisted reproductive technologies, and gene editing to drive genetic improvement of cattle. CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, 3(1), 13.
  • Bogliotti, Y. S., Wu, J., Vilarino, M., Okamura, D., Soto, D. A., Zhong, C., & Ross, P. J. (2018). Efficient derivation of stable primed pluripotent embryonic stem cells from bovine blastocysts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(9), 2090-2095.
  • Hennig, S. L., Owen, J. R., Lin, J. C., Young, A. E., Ross, P. J., Van Eenennaam, A. L., & Murray, J. D. (2020). Evaluation of mutation rates, mosaicism and off-target mutations when injecting Cas9 mRNA or protein for genome editing of bovine embryos. Scientific reports, 10(1), 22309.

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The Majestic Komodo Dragon: A Fascinating Creature of the Animal Kingdom

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green and brown lizard on brown soil

Introduction

Welcome to our blog post dedicated to the awe-inspiring Komodo Dragon! In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of these magnificent creatures, exploring their unique characteristics, habitat, behavior, and conservation efforts. Join us on this thrilling journey as we uncover the secrets of the world’s largest lizard.

The Komodo Dragon: A Marvel of Evolution

The Komodo Dragon, scientifically known as Varanus komodoensis, is a species of reptile endemic to the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar. These majestic creatures have captured the imagination of people around the world with their immense size, powerful build, and intriguing features.

With an average length of 8 to 10 feet and weighing up to 200 pounds, the Komodo Dragon holds the title for being the largest lizard on Earth. Their muscular bodies, sharp claws, and serrated teeth make them formidable predators in their natural habitat.

Habitat and Distribution

Komodo Dragons primarily inhabit the dry savannahs and forests of their native islands. Their distribution is limited to a few specific regions, making them a unique and iconic species in the animal kingdom. These reptiles have adapted to a range of environments, from coastal areas to mountainous regions.

Due to their restricted range, Komodo Dragons are considered vulnerable to extinction. Efforts are being made to protect their natural habitats and ensure their long-term survival.

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Behavior and Diet

Komodo Dragons are solitary creatures, typically preferring to live alone. They are known for their patience and stealth when hunting, often ambushing unsuspecting prey. These reptiles have a diverse diet that includes deer, wild boar, water buffalo, and smaller reptiles. Their saliva contains a potent mix of bacteria, which aids in the digestion of their prey.

Interestingly, Komodo Dragons have a unique hunting strategy. After capturing their prey, they patiently wait for it to succumb to the bacteria in their saliva, making it easier to consume. This remarkable adaptation showcases the intricate balance of nature.

Conservation Efforts

Due to their limited distribution and vulnerable status, Komodo Dragons are protected by law in Indonesia. National parks, such as Komodo National Park, have been established to safeguard their habitats and promote conservation efforts.

Conservation organizations and local communities are working together to raise awareness about the importance of preserving these magnificent creatures. Education and research initiatives play a crucial role in understanding their behavior, population dynamics, and habitat requirements.

Conclusion

The Komodo Dragon is undoubtedly a marvel of the animal kingdom. Its impressive size, unique hunting techniques, and restricted habitat make it a captivating species to study and admire. As we continue to learn more about these incredible creatures, it is vital that we prioritize their conservation to ensure their survival for generations to come.


Frequently Asked Questions

 

1. How dangerous are Komodo Dragons?

Komodo Dragons can be dangerous if provoked or threatened. Their powerful bite and bacteria-laden saliva can cause severe infections in their prey. However, they generally avoid human contact and prefer to retreat rather than engage in aggressive behavior.

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2. Can Komodo Dragons swim?

Yes, Komodo Dragons are capable swimmers. They can traverse bodies of water, including open sea channels, to reach other islands in search of food or new territories.

 

3. Are Komodo Dragons endangered?

Komodo Dragons are currently classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Their limited distribution and habitat loss pose significant threats to their population. Conservation efforts are crucial to ensure their long-term survival.

 

4. How long do Komodo Dragons live?

Komodo Dragons have an average lifespan of 30 to 50 years in the wild. In captivity, they can live even longer, with some individuals reaching up to 60 years of age.

 

5. Can Komodo Dragons fly?

No, Komodo Dragons cannot fly. They are terrestrial reptiles with powerful legs and claws, adapted for a life on land.

Thank you for joining us on this exploration of the magnificent Komodo Dragon. We hope you found this article informative and inspiring. If you have any more questions or would like to share your thoughts, feel free to reach out to us. Until next time, keep exploring the wonders of the animal kingdom!

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The Fascinating World of Komodo Iguanas: A Comprehensive Guide

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a large lizard laying on top of a dirt field

Introduction

Welcome to our comprehensive guide on Komodo Iguanas, one of the most fascinating reptiles on the planet. In this article, we will delve into the world of these incredible creatures, exploring their habitat, characteristics, behavior, and much more. Whether you are a reptile enthusiast or simply curious about these magnificent creatures, this guide will provide you with all the information you need.

1. The Origins of Komodo Iguanas

Komodo Iguanas, scientifically known as Varanus komodoensis, are native to the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar. These islands form the Komodo National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site. The iguanas have adapted to the unique environment of these islands, making them truly remarkable creatures.

1.1 Habitat

Komodo Iguanas inhabit a range of habitats within the Komodo National Park, including dry savannahs, tropical forests, and coastal areas. Their ability to thrive in diverse environments is a testament to their resilience and adaptability.

1.2 Physical Characteristics

These impressive reptiles can grow up to 10 feet in length and weigh over 150 pounds, making them the largest lizards in the world. They have strong limbs, sharp claws, and a muscular tail, which they use for defense and balance. Their scaly skin provides protection from the harsh elements of their environment.

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2. Behavior and Diet

Komodo Iguanas are primarily solitary creatures, although they may congregate in areas with abundant food sources. They are excellent climbers and swimmers, allowing them to explore their surroundings with ease. Their diet consists mainly of small mammals, birds, and carrion, and they have been known to exhibit opportunistic feeding behavior.

2.1 Hunting Techniques

When hunting, Komodo Iguanas rely on their keen sense of smell and excellent eyesight. They patiently wait for their prey, then ambush it with a swift and powerful bite. Their saliva contains a mix of bacteria that can cause a lethal infection in their prey, ensuring a successful hunt.

2.2 Reproduction

During the breeding season, male Komodo Iguanas engage in fierce battles to establish dominance and win the right to mate with females. Females lay their eggs in burrows, where they are left to incubate for several months. Once hatched, the young iguanas must fend for themselves, facing numerous challenges in their early stages of life.

3. Conservation Efforts

Due to their limited habitat and the threats they face, Komodo Iguanas are classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Human activities, such as habitat destruction and illegal poaching, pose significant risks to their survival. Efforts are underway to protect their natural habitat and raise awareness about the importance of conservation.

Conclusion

Komodo Iguanas are truly remarkable creatures that captivate the imagination of reptile enthusiasts worldwide. Their unique habitat, impressive physical characteristics, and fascinating behavior make them a subject of great interest and study. By understanding and appreciating these incredible reptiles, we can contribute to their conservation and ensure their survival for generations to come.

READ ALSO:  The Plight Of Siberian Tigers: Understanding Why They Are Endangered

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Are Komodo Iguanas dangerous?

Komodo Iguanas are not considered dangerous to humans unless provoked. They are generally shy and prefer to avoid human contact.

2. Can Komodo Iguanas be kept as pets?

Due to their size and specific habitat requirements, Komodo Iguanas are not suitable as pets. They require specialized care and a large, naturalistic enclosure.

3. How long do Komodo Iguanas live?

Komodo Iguanas have an average lifespan of 20 to 30 years in the wild. In captivity, with proper care, they can live even longer.

4. Are Komodo Iguanas endangered?

Komodo Iguanas are classified as vulnerable, meaning they are at risk of extinction in the wild. Conservation efforts are crucial to their survival.

5. What is the difference between a Komodo Iguana and a regular iguana?

Komodo Iguanas are a distinct species known for their large size and unique habitat. Regular iguanas refer to various species within the Iguanidae family, which can differ in size, habitat, and behavior.

By providing this comprehensive guide on Komodo Iguanas, we aim to promote awareness and appreciation for these incredible reptiles. Through conservation efforts and responsible stewardship of their natural habitat, we can ensure the continued existence of these magnificent creatures for future generations to admire.

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