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All The Facts You Need To Know About Southern New Zealand Fur Seal



southern new zealand fur seal

All The Facts You Need To Know About Southern New Zealand Fur Seal


This article covers the facts you need to know about Southern New Zealand fur seals. These seals are social animals that spend most of their time hunting and living on rocky shores.

They return to the same haul-out each year to breed. They produce pups called “kids,” which suck for 300 days, with some pups continuing to suckle into their second year.

Females alternate feeding the pups for one to two days, and then they leave for up to twenty days. This period will lengthen as the pups mature.

Females Are Smaller Than Males

These sea mammals are sexually dimorphic. Males are larger and weigh approximately three times as much as females.

southern new zealand fur seal

Females have a shorter, narrower muzzle. They have two layers of dark brown fur, and males have longer ears. Males weigh approximately 350 pounds and females weigh around 88 pounds. The adult size of these seals is between 4.5 and five feet.

The females stay in the same breeding area for about two months after giving birth, and they will remain there until their pups have reached the required age.

The males arrive on the birthing beaches months before the females, and they fight fiercely to claim territories. The biggest males, referred to as “beach masters,” will mate with up to 100 females within their territory.

This ensures that the males father the biggest and strongest pups. These females are smaller than males. But they get more than enough help from the males to raise their young.

The size of the female Northern New Zealand fur seal is smaller than that of the male. The females are much more social than the males.

They rest close to each other onshore, and they maintain small, intimate spaces of between one and two meters. Females, however, tend to be much smaller than males. If you want to see these seals in the wild, be sure to visit their breeding sites!

While females of the Southern New Zealand fur seal are larger than their male counterparts, they weigh less. This is mainly due to their lack of sex.

Males weigh about twice as much as females. Males have larger, darker-colored sex, while females are much smaller. A southern fur seal can live in both male and female colonies. So, if you happen to spot one of them, don’t miss it.

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They Are Listed In CITES Appendix II

The trawling fishery for the southern blue whiting, Puysegur hoki, and jack mackerel is a major culprit in the recent deaths of fur seals.

To reduce mortality rates, environmental groups are calling for the introduction of marine mammal exclusion devices. The Southern New Zealand fur seal is listed as endangered in CITES Appendix II, the same as the endangered humpback whale.

In 2002, all three species of New Zealand fur seals were listed in CITES Appendix II.  Although their numbers are largely approximate, the trade in Appendix II threatens to further reduce the numbers of animals and plants in the wild.

While the European Union and the United States have both declared a moratorium on ivory imports, the sale of Appendix II stocks is still permitted. They are allowed to be exported to Africa, Asia, and some African countries.

CITES provides guidance and guidelines for the implementation of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Act. Its recommendations are either new resolutions, revised resolutions, or decisions.

The latter is more permanent than resolutions. The Conference of the Parties votes on amendments to Appendices I and II. A two-thirds majority of States Parties present at the conference approved a proposal.

The size and weight of the Southern New Zealand fur seal are relatively small compared to other types of seals. The average length and weight of the adults is 190 cm, ranging from a pup to an adult. Males weigh about three to four times more than females.

The females weigh between forty and fifty-five kilograms. They are also sexually dimorphic and their male counterparts are typically much bigger than their female counterparts.

They Can Dive To Depths Of 780 Feet

New Zealand Fur Seals are deep-diving marine mammals. Some species can dive as deep as 238 m (780 ft) and remain underwater for up to 11 minutes.

These animals spend most of their time underwater, although they may forage as deep as 200 km offshore. During the day, males spend long periods grooming their coats and rubbing spots on rocks.

They are primarily hunted by orcas and sharks, although humans do have a direct impact on their population through fishing nets and pollution.

These animals are found in the subantarctic islands of southern New Zealand. Their population is estimated at 50,000 and 5,000 individuals.

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The number of southern fur seals in New Zealand and Australia was more than 200,000 in 2008. Most of the animals live in the southern part of the South Island.

However, some of these species also live on the neighboring islands. Chatham Island has a breeding colony and the Bounty Islands are home to yearlings and occasional breeding activity.

The southern New Zealand fur seal can dive to depths of 780 feet. They live along the coasts of New Zealand, Antarctica, and Tasmania. It has been shown that the Southern New Zealand fur seal can dive as deep as 780 feet and even further.

The species is also widely distributed in the waters of New Zealand, and the population of the fur seal is estimated to be at its highest population in New Zealand.

While their range was vast before humans arrived, the population was greatly reduced by commercial fishing. Commercial and Maori hunters reduced the seal population to near extinction. Until recently, New Zealand fur seals lived throughout the country.

The population has since recovered. Its population has now increased by over 70%. And it is estimated that if the oil spill occurred, the seals would have reached that depth by now.

They Are Vulnerable To Oil Spills

Oil spills are one of the most devastating impacts on the wildlife of the Southern Hemisphere, particularly the fur seals.

These animals are highly vulnerable to the contamination of the water, which can harm their health. Oil spills also affect other animals in the region, including killer whales.

These animals are known to prey on fur seal pups, but their mortality rates are unknown.

One study found that the male Cape fur seal is twice as likely as the female to become entangled in man-made debris such as monofilament lines, trawl nets, rope, and wire.

The National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Seas by Oil, managed by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority, aims to prevent or minimize marine pollution.

It coordinates the actions of state and federal government and industry to minimize spillage. The National Plan does not address the plight of marine mammals, however.

A draft National Oiled Wildlife Response Plan was released in September 2002, which includes an appendix on seals. The AMSA also publishes public information and distributes oiled wildlife response kits to key mainland centers.

The sub-Antarctic fur seal lives in rocky coastal habitats, including exposed boulders and rock platforms. It also feeds on birds, such as penguins.

It breeds on rocky shores, avoiding sandy platforms and pebbly beaches. The population of Southern New Zealand fur seals in the region has decreased by about 60% since the 1800s.

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However, it has regrown in the past decades and has been able to breed at a higher rate than ever before. The Australian Fisheries Management Authority monitors IUU fishing and is taking steps to mitigate this problem.

Australian vessels operating in Antarctic Fisheries are required to report all interactions with seals. Skippers must report the species, location, weather conditions, and actions taken to prevent similar incidents in the future.

Observers on board vessels are required to collect biological samples from dead seals and record vital statistics.

They Are Vulnerable To Entanglement

The major causes of death for southern New Zealand fur seals are associated with commercial fisheries.

The entanglements result from the seals’ entanglements with plastic strapping tape and green trawl nets. According to the latest data from the Kaikoura region, around 90 percent of seal entanglements were related to the use of plastic strapping tape.

Almost every fourth entangled seal died of its injuries. This medium-sized fur seal is a target for entanglement because its large size makes it a prime candidate for entanglement in fishing gear.

The species used to be widely distributed around New Zealand, but overhunting and other factors have reduced their range to near extinction.

Entanglement in marine debris, dogs, and oil spills have all affected seals’ range. Too much human attention has also had a negative impact on seals’ ability to rest and care for their pups.

The disentanglement team at Ocean Conservation Namibia is a key player in the effort to protect the species. It has released a series of studies documenting the number of entangled seals and ad hoc interventions to help save these animals.

The team has released the first results of this project, indicating that the entanglement rate of CFS was approximately one per 500 animals.

The rate of entanglement was similar between Walvis Bay and Cape Cross, with about one seal being entangled each year. Commercial fishing operations and recreational activities have also negatively impacted the northern fur seal.

These activities have reduced their food supply, limiting their ability to feed on the available prey items. Meanwhile, the commercial fishing industry has reduced the population.

Meanwhile, a small, temporal aggregation of the seals on Montague Island is prone to stochastic events. Despite this, the species is showing signs of recovery and continues to be a valuable part of the local economy.

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Potential and Challenges of Applying Gene Editing Techniques




potential and challenges of applying gene editing techniques

Potential and Challenges of Applying Gene Editing Techniques, such as CRISPR-Cas9, in Bovine Embryos Generated by IVF



In vitro embryo production (IVP) has revolutionized cattle reproduction, allowing for the rapid multiplication of genetic material from high-value animals and opening up new possibilities for genetic improvement. Gene editing, with emphasis on the CRISPR-Cas9 technique, emerges as a powerful tool to enhance IVP, enabling precise manipulation of the genome and the introduction of desirable characteristics in animals. Gene editing techniques, such as CRISPR-Cas9, ZFNs, and TALENs, allow for precise modification of DNA at specific locations, representing an advance over homologous recombination techniques, which are inefficient and time-consuming.

However, the application of gene editing in bovine embryos generated by IVF still presents technical challenges, such as low efficiency and the occurrence of mosaicism, in addition to ethical and regulatory considerations that need to be addressed. This article discusses the potential and challenges of gene editing, focusing on the CRISPR-Cas9 technique, in bovine embryos produced by IVF, aiming to develop strategies to overcome barriers and ensure the safe and responsible application of this promising technology.

Potential of Gene Editing in Bovine Embryos

CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing allows for precise manipulation of the genome, opening up a range of possibilities for genetic improvement in cattle. The technique can be used for:

  • Correction of disease-causing genes: Recessive genetic diseases, such as Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD), can be corrected in embryos, eliminating the transmission of the disease to future generations.
  • Insertion of beneficial traits: The introduction of genes of interest, such as disease resistance or production traits, can accelerate the genetic improvement process, resulting in healthier and more productive animals.
  • Creation of models for research: Gene editing allows for the creation of animal models to study human diseases and develop new therapies.
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Challenges of Gene Editing in Bovine Embryos

Despite the potential, gene editing in bovine embryos still faces challenges:

  • Efficiency of editing: The success rate of gene editing in embryos is still relatively low, with the frequent occurrence of mosaicism (different genotypes in the same individual).
  • Editing specificity: The technique can generate unintentional mutations in other parts of the genome, with possible undesired effects.
  • Generation of viable animals: Gene editing can affect embryonic development and the viability of the generated animals.
  • Ethical and regulatory aspects: The application of gene editing in animals raises ethical questions about animal welfare and food safety, in addition to demanding a clear and consistent regulatory framework.

Strategies to Overcome Challenges

To overcome the challenges of gene editing in bovine embryos, several strategies are being explored:

  • Optimization of editing protocols: Optimization of gene editing protocols, such as the use of different CRISPR-Cas9 systems and choosing the ideal time for editing, can increase the efficiency and specificity of the technique.
  • Selection of edited embryos: The combination of gene editing with genomic selection of embryos (GSE) allows the identification and selection of embryos with the desired editing and high genetic merit, increasing the efficiency of the process.
  • Improvement of embryo transfer techniques: The development of more efficient embryo transfer techniques can increase the success rate in generating viable animals from edited embryos.
  • Ethical discussion and development of regulations: Ethical debate and the development of clear and consistent regulations are fundamental to ensure the responsible and safe application of gene editing in animals.
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CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing represents a powerful tool for the advancement of animal production and food security, as long as it is used responsibly and ethically. The combination of gene editing with other biotechnologies, such as genomic selection, can accelerate the development of solutions for livestock challenges, such as diseases, low productivity, and adaptation to climate change. However, it is crucial that the scientific community and society engage in a constant dialogue to ensure that the application of gene editing is safe, transparent, and benefits both producers and consumers.

Gene editing, especially with the CRISPR-Cas9 technique, has enormous potential to revolutionize in vitro embryo production (IVP) and genetic improvement of cattle, opening doors to a promising future in livestock. By enabling precise manipulation of the genome, this technology allows the correction of disease-causing genes, the insertion of beneficial traits, and the creation of models for research in cattle. Overcoming technical challenges, such as increasing the efficiency and specificity of editing, along with the combination with other biotechnologies, such as genomic selection of embryos, has the potential to accelerate genetic improvement and boost IVP, resulting in healthier, more productive, and better-adapted animals to market needs.

However, the application of gene editing in bovine embryos also raises important ethical and regulatory questions. It is essential that the scientific community, together with regulatory bodies and society, establish an open and transparent dialogue to discuss the possible impacts of this technology and ensure its responsible and safe application. Additionally, the development of a clear and consistent regulatory framework is essential to ensure food safety, animal welfare, and consumer confidence in products derived from gene editing.

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CARLOS AUGUSTO DELMINDO FILHO is a veterinarian with extensive experience in bovine reproduction, specializing in various reproductive biotechnologies such as OPU, AI, and embryo transfer. He has worked on dairy and beef cattle farms, focusing on optimizing results and researching new technologies. Currently, he serves as an OPU specialist, performing follicular evaluation and aspiration in donors. He holds a degree in veterinary medicine and has completed specialization courses in bovine reproduction, surgery, and technical responsibility. Additionally, he has volunteered in underserved communities and participated in academic leagues.


  • Mueller, M. L., & Van Eenennaam, A. L. (2022). Synergistic power of genomic selection, assisted reproductive technologies, and gene editing to drive genetic improvement of cattle. CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, 3(1), 13.
  • Bogliotti, Y. S., Wu, J., Vilarino, M., Okamura, D., Soto, D. A., Zhong, C., & Ross, P. J. (2018). Efficient derivation of stable primed pluripotent embryonic stem cells from bovine blastocysts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(9), 2090-2095.
  • Hennig, S. L., Owen, J. R., Lin, J. C., Young, A. E., Ross, P. J., Van Eenennaam, A. L., & Murray, J. D. (2020). Evaluation of mutation rates, mosaicism and off-target mutations when injecting Cas9 mRNA or protein for genome editing of bovine embryos. Scientific reports, 10(1), 22309.

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The Majestic Komodo Dragon: A Fascinating Creature of the Animal Kingdom




green and brown lizard on brown soil


Welcome to our blog post dedicated to the awe-inspiring Komodo Dragon! In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of these magnificent creatures, exploring their unique characteristics, habitat, behavior, and conservation efforts. Join us on this thrilling journey as we uncover the secrets of the world’s largest lizard.

The Komodo Dragon: A Marvel of Evolution

The Komodo Dragon, scientifically known as Varanus komodoensis, is a species of reptile endemic to the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar. These majestic creatures have captured the imagination of people around the world with their immense size, powerful build, and intriguing features.

With an average length of 8 to 10 feet and weighing up to 200 pounds, the Komodo Dragon holds the title for being the largest lizard on Earth. Their muscular bodies, sharp claws, and serrated teeth make them formidable predators in their natural habitat.

Habitat and Distribution

Komodo Dragons primarily inhabit the dry savannahs and forests of their native islands. Their distribution is limited to a few specific regions, making them a unique and iconic species in the animal kingdom. These reptiles have adapted to a range of environments, from coastal areas to mountainous regions.

Due to their restricted range, Komodo Dragons are considered vulnerable to extinction. Efforts are being made to protect their natural habitats and ensure their long-term survival.

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Behavior and Diet

Komodo Dragons are solitary creatures, typically preferring to live alone. They are known for their patience and stealth when hunting, often ambushing unsuspecting prey. These reptiles have a diverse diet that includes deer, wild boar, water buffalo, and smaller reptiles. Their saliva contains a potent mix of bacteria, which aids in the digestion of their prey.

Interestingly, Komodo Dragons have a unique hunting strategy. After capturing their prey, they patiently wait for it to succumb to the bacteria in their saliva, making it easier to consume. This remarkable adaptation showcases the intricate balance of nature.

Conservation Efforts

Due to their limited distribution and vulnerable status, Komodo Dragons are protected by law in Indonesia. National parks, such as Komodo National Park, have been established to safeguard their habitats and promote conservation efforts.

Conservation organizations and local communities are working together to raise awareness about the importance of preserving these magnificent creatures. Education and research initiatives play a crucial role in understanding their behavior, population dynamics, and habitat requirements.


The Komodo Dragon is undoubtedly a marvel of the animal kingdom. Its impressive size, unique hunting techniques, and restricted habitat make it a captivating species to study and admire. As we continue to learn more about these incredible creatures, it is vital that we prioritize their conservation to ensure their survival for generations to come.

Frequently Asked Questions


1. How dangerous are Komodo Dragons?

Komodo Dragons can be dangerous if provoked or threatened. Their powerful bite and bacteria-laden saliva can cause severe infections in their prey. However, they generally avoid human contact and prefer to retreat rather than engage in aggressive behavior.

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2. Can Komodo Dragons swim?

Yes, Komodo Dragons are capable swimmers. They can traverse bodies of water, including open sea channels, to reach other islands in search of food or new territories.


3. Are Komodo Dragons endangered?

Komodo Dragons are currently classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Their limited distribution and habitat loss pose significant threats to their population. Conservation efforts are crucial to ensure their long-term survival.


4. How long do Komodo Dragons live?

Komodo Dragons have an average lifespan of 30 to 50 years in the wild. In captivity, they can live even longer, with some individuals reaching up to 60 years of age.


5. Can Komodo Dragons fly?

No, Komodo Dragons cannot fly. They are terrestrial reptiles with powerful legs and claws, adapted for a life on land.

Thank you for joining us on this exploration of the magnificent Komodo Dragon. We hope you found this article informative and inspiring. If you have any more questions or would like to share your thoughts, feel free to reach out to us. Until next time, keep exploring the wonders of the animal kingdom!

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The Fascinating World of Komodo Iguanas: A Comprehensive Guide




a large lizard laying on top of a dirt field


Welcome to our comprehensive guide on Komodo Iguanas, one of the most fascinating reptiles on the planet. In this article, we will delve into the world of these incredible creatures, exploring their habitat, characteristics, behavior, and much more. Whether you are a reptile enthusiast or simply curious about these magnificent creatures, this guide will provide you with all the information you need.

1. The Origins of Komodo Iguanas

Komodo Iguanas, scientifically known as Varanus komodoensis, are native to the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar. These islands form the Komodo National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site. The iguanas have adapted to the unique environment of these islands, making them truly remarkable creatures.

1.1 Habitat

Komodo Iguanas inhabit a range of habitats within the Komodo National Park, including dry savannahs, tropical forests, and coastal areas. Their ability to thrive in diverse environments is a testament to their resilience and adaptability.

1.2 Physical Characteristics

These impressive reptiles can grow up to 10 feet in length and weigh over 150 pounds, making them the largest lizards in the world. They have strong limbs, sharp claws, and a muscular tail, which they use for defense and balance. Their scaly skin provides protection from the harsh elements of their environment.

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2. Behavior and Diet

Komodo Iguanas are primarily solitary creatures, although they may congregate in areas with abundant food sources. They are excellent climbers and swimmers, allowing them to explore their surroundings with ease. Their diet consists mainly of small mammals, birds, and carrion, and they have been known to exhibit opportunistic feeding behavior.

2.1 Hunting Techniques

When hunting, Komodo Iguanas rely on their keen sense of smell and excellent eyesight. They patiently wait for their prey, then ambush it with a swift and powerful bite. Their saliva contains a mix of bacteria that can cause a lethal infection in their prey, ensuring a successful hunt.

2.2 Reproduction

During the breeding season, male Komodo Iguanas engage in fierce battles to establish dominance and win the right to mate with females. Females lay their eggs in burrows, where they are left to incubate for several months. Once hatched, the young iguanas must fend for themselves, facing numerous challenges in their early stages of life.

3. Conservation Efforts

Due to their limited habitat and the threats they face, Komodo Iguanas are classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Human activities, such as habitat destruction and illegal poaching, pose significant risks to their survival. Efforts are underway to protect their natural habitat and raise awareness about the importance of conservation.


Komodo Iguanas are truly remarkable creatures that captivate the imagination of reptile enthusiasts worldwide. Their unique habitat, impressive physical characteristics, and fascinating behavior make them a subject of great interest and study. By understanding and appreciating these incredible reptiles, we can contribute to their conservation and ensure their survival for generations to come.

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Are Komodo Iguanas dangerous?

Komodo Iguanas are not considered dangerous to humans unless provoked. They are generally shy and prefer to avoid human contact.

2. Can Komodo Iguanas be kept as pets?

Due to their size and specific habitat requirements, Komodo Iguanas are not suitable as pets. They require specialized care and a large, naturalistic enclosure.

3. How long do Komodo Iguanas live?

Komodo Iguanas have an average lifespan of 20 to 30 years in the wild. In captivity, with proper care, they can live even longer.

4. Are Komodo Iguanas endangered?

Komodo Iguanas are classified as vulnerable, meaning they are at risk of extinction in the wild. Conservation efforts are crucial to their survival.

5. What is the difference between a Komodo Iguana and a regular iguana?

Komodo Iguanas are a distinct species known for their large size and unique habitat. Regular iguanas refer to various species within the Iguanidae family, which can differ in size, habitat, and behavior.

By providing this comprehensive guide on Komodo Iguanas, we aim to promote awareness and appreciation for these incredible reptiles. Through conservation efforts and responsible stewardship of their natural habitat, we can ensure the continued existence of these magnificent creatures for future generations to admire.

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